The use of fossil energy to date has reached 84% of global energy use, making it the main source of daily necessities and a factor of economic growth. In Indonesia, the use of fossil energy alone reaches 92%. Some people say this has had a negative impact on climate change. Due to climate change, a number of crises have emerged, such as extreme weather, increased disease, degradation of biodiversity, and decreased food production. Therefore, a policy breakthrough with a cleaner renewable energy transition is needed.

Jannata Giwangkara, Manager of the Institute for Essential Service Reform (IESR) Energy Transformation Program gave his presentation at the PWYP Indonesia Workshop entitled “Understanding the Issue of Energy Transition and Current Development” on Tuesday (22/12/2020). According to him, the energy in question is energy that can be renewed in a short time without emitting greenhouse gases. Utilization of renewable energy includes water energy, geothermal energy, biomass energy, wind energy, solar energy, and marine energy.

Data shows that in the last 167 years, global greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector have increased 129 times, with an average being dominated by fossil energy. Based on global temperature measurement data, it can be seen that the median temperature of the earth has increased by 1-1.2 ° C. Therefore, reducing greenhouse gas emissions must be done as early as possible. These greenhouse gas emissions must be lowered early to net-zero, in order to reach 1.5 ° C by 2050.

Meanwhile, the development scenario for the clean and renewable energy transition is growing exponentially in line with the increase in electrification in the last decade. The increase in technological innovation and actors who are interested in investing in this sector also increases the demand in the market. Renewable energy investment has decreased from 29% to 82%. According to Egi, Jannata Giwangkara’s nickname, this significant decline will make the bargaining position of renewable energy in the future equal to fossil energy.

On the other hand, efforts to transition towards clean energy have also been accelerated to low (even non-existent) energy systems. Since the Lockdown was implemented due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the level of community mobility has decreased sharply to an unprecedented level. This has led to a decline in daily electricity needs of at least 15% in France, India, Italy, Spain, Great Britain and the northwestern part of the US.

Egi also pointed out countries with energy transition installed capacities where China, Europe and the US dominated the top three installers over the past decade, followed by India as the fourth. In addition, Energy Transition Index data by the World Economic Forum shows Sweden, Switzerland, and Finland dominating the top rankings with the highest scores in terms of progress in renewable energy growth compared to 115 other countries. He also added that the progress of the energy transition in ASEAN countries where Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand are considered the leading countries in this index measure, while the Philippines, Vietnam and Indonesia are still experiencing progress challenges.