Jakarta – Gender Equality, Disability, and Social Inclusion (GEDSI) is a crucial topic to be included in development policy making. Mouna Wasef as Project Manager of GEDSI in Energy Transition PWYP Indonesia, and Rahmi Hertanti, Researcher, presented a study entitled Mainstreaming GEDSI in Indonesia’s Equitable Energy Transition in Jakarta. Present as responders at this forum were Edi Wibowo, Director of the Energy Bureau and Director General of Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation, MEMR. Then there was Mrs. Dini, Deputy for Maritime Affairs from Barnas, who represented Vivi Juliastati, Deputy for Maritime Affairs, Diah Roro Widiastuti, Member of Commission VII of the House of Representatives for Renewable Energy, Golkar Party. Ms. Leni Nurhayati Rosaline was also Deputy for Gender Equality, KPPPA; Director of SAPdA (Sentra Advokasi Perempuan Disabilitas dan Anak, and Ms. Grita Anindarini, Program Director of Indonesia Center for Environmental Law or ICEL. This event was held on June 15, 2023.

This study discusses the energy sector from upstream to downstream. Hopefully, this study can be developed more comprehensively and used as a basic framework for further analyzing gender inequality or injustice in the GEDSI perspective in Indonesia’s equitable energy transition.

Meanwhile, the issue of energy transition has become increasingly important amid growing concerns over climate change, dependence on unrenewable energy resources, and the negative environmental impacts caused by fossil energy. The energy transition involves technological and infrastructural changes and social, economic, and policy changes. Given the environmental and social challenges, Indonesia’s just energy transition is becoming increasingly important. Thus, including the GEDSI perspective in the Energy sector is a relatively uncommon topic. Therefore, Publish What You Pay Indonesia raised the matter of Energy Transition from the GEDSI perspective as momentum to mainstream the issue.

The existing regulatory framework, namely Law No. 30 of 2007 on energy transition for national welfare and several derivatives related to national energy planning, Has several notes associated with the topic of this study. Indonesia’s energy transition agenda is still attached to the dominance of false solutions. It should be given a vital focus government is still dependent on energy transition from fossils.  Secondly, there needs to be a narrow understanding of the energy transition. It is only seeing that we need an energy transition from the old energy system to a new energy system. Rahmi also mentioned that the analysis of this study was also formulated by Hopkins, namely as a chain of energy systems in the aspects of mining, production, management, consumption, distribution, and even waste management, which is essential for the inherent upstream, downstream analysis, therefore, when we talk about analyzing the problems faced by vulnerable groups in the context of the GEDSI approach. 

Rachmi sees two areas of approach that are important for mainstreaming GEDSI: how we see GEDSI in the energy extraction business and GEDSI in the energy conversion program. The author also tries to formulate an appropriate conception of GEDSI and what GEDSI needs in the process of an equitable energy transition in Indonesia. At the very least, this conception can serve as a rationale that attempts to adopt some of the main ideas related to just transition, energy justice, and GEDSI’s involvement that lead to the top and down with existing indicators such as APKM. But then, the vital thing to note is that adopting just transition and energy transition or energy justice is also an aspect of APKM or GEDSI indicators.

Meanwhile, Mouna explained the principles that should be included in mainstreaming GEDSI in the extraction business for the energy transition. These principles include the decision-making process (Participation and control), Economy (Benefits), Access to resources, Sociocultural integration, and Remedial. The scope consists of electric vehicle conversion programs and energy efficiency in household appliances, including switching to electric stoves.  Mainstreaming GEDSI in energy conversion programs also has electric vehicle conversion programs and energy efficiency in decision-making (participation and control). 

Overall, Rachmi and Mouna provide points of recommendation as a result of this study, namely:

  1. To encourage the effectiveness of GEDSI mainstreaming in Indonesia’s equitable energy transition, it is necessary to develop a regulatory framework that becomes the legal basis for establishing an institution with adequate budget support that will specifically carry out the GEDSI mainstreaming agenda. This regulatory framework can complement the technical operationalization of GEDSI mainstreaming in implementing Law No. 30/2007 on Energy and Government Regulation No. 79/2014 as the legal basis for national energy management. There must be a program-budget policy explicitly aimed at vulnerable groups and persons with disabilities in the energy transition agenda.
  2. The institutional presence for the implementation of GEDSI mainstreaming in the equitable energy transition needs to be complemented by an effective remedial action mechanism, both in providing a fair and accessible input and complaint mechanism for the community in mitigating development impacts, including risk and disaster mitigation mechanisms arising from the implemented energy transition program.
  3. Regarding the presence of the JETP Secretariat under the authority of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, it is necessary to ensure that the basic principles in the JET framework, namely gender equality and women’s empowerment, become the foundation of each working group. This
  4. This can be done by forming a GEDSI working group that works on an ad-hoc basis with a period adjusted to the needs evaluation (3-5 years). It is also essential to build inter-agency cooperation, in this case between the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, the Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection, including non-ministerial institutions related to aspects of GEDSI such as the National Commission on Disability, the National Commission on Women and Children, and the Ombudsman.
  5. To ensure gender justice and social inclusion in the equitable energy transition, the government must ensure that regulations related to this sector explicitly mention that women, groups with disabilities, and other vulnerable groups are groups that can participate and benefit in the energy transition process and mandate specific programs and budgets aimed at vulnerable groups and disabilities as an effort to balance access, control, participation and benefits from the energy transition process. Therefore, program planning must include aspects of programs that strengthen the empowerment of vulnerable groups, budget allocations for vulnerable groups, and complete gender-disaggregated target data.

Dini Mafira responded to this study by conveying development policies that favor equity, not just equality, because we see the needs on the ground. She hopes we can continue to complete this development for inclusivity, especially prioritizing GEDSI in development. He added that Mouna and Rachmi’s recommendations must be prioritized, especially because policymaking is always data-based. Hence, the availability of disaggregated data is essential for the government. Dini Mafira revealed that Disable Indonesia, and Bappenas, will engage with validate in Indonesia to provide disaggregated data. When we make policies, we can generalize all the information to the needs in the field. 

Leni Nurhayati Rosaline, Deputy for Gender Equality, KPPPA, responded that these recommendations are valid. However, the question is, what are the following steps to take? She encouraged participants to work together so that all components, not only gender and inclusion but also disability, can be comprehensively planned, monitored, implemented, and evaluated, especially in implementing policies. 

Nurul conveyed input on the need to re-evaluate this study. Because PWYP initiated this topic and it is ad-hoc. She imagines that in five years, this issue will become more general so that all sections and programs, up to three years, maybe because it will be re-evaluated.  There will be much homework to be done so that we can provide the right program and serve them well for optimal participation. It can benefit vulnerable groups, older adults, and children. Because without this affirmation, they cannot participate in the energy transition.

Grita from ICEL responded that with research from various countries on energy transition, the issue of GEDSi is still a big PR in multiple countries. The documents presented in this country show the same challenges as Indonesia. So they still need to develop a clear concept of integrating the GEDSI issue into the policy realm. Looking at the learning from various countries, the average is still focused on general principles. When discussing opportunities, there must be a rallying distribution related to gender, disabilities, and others. This is our momentum to go beyond regulation and the current condition where GEDSI remains a significant challenge in Indonesia and various countries.

Meanwhile, Holi representing the PUSAD organization, included that in policy-making, in addition to legal substance, we must also pay attention to legal structure and culture. Does it mean that our government structure supports this? Does our culture pay attention to this matter? 

The notes and input from this discussion prove that implementing GEDSI in the Energy Transition is a topic that can still be studied more deeply from various aspects. Of course, this approach must favor vulnerable groups to encourage justice if the energy transition can be implemented properly.

Author: Ersya Nailuvar
Reviewer: Meliana Lumbantoruan & Chitra Regina Apris