Jakarta – Publish What You Pay (PWYP) Indonesia held a National Meeting of Communities and Civil Society Organizations entitled Realizing a Fair, Inclusive and Transformative Energy Transition in Indonesia on June 21-22, 2023, in Central Jakarta. The meeting, which was attended by more than 70 representatives from local communities and civil society organizations from many regions in Indonesia, aimed to map the problems faced by the community from the implementation of energy transition policies in Indonesia, Define a just energy transition from the perspective and experience of communities and civil society organizations; and formulate recommendations for a just energy transition that is inclusive, and transformative from the perspective of local communities and civil society organizations.

Aryanto Nugroho, PWYP Indonesia Coordinator, opened this national meeting by saying that Indonesia is currently making an energy transition from dirty energy to clean energy. Of course, this transition must be accelerated immediately, not negatively, to impact society and the environment. However, it is also essential to ensure that the energy transition runs fairly and that its impacts and risks, especially for vulnerable groups, can be mitigated.

Aryanto raised questions regarding community involvement in every energy transition process.

“What is a just energy transition? In the energy transition round, where is the community’s position, women, fishermen, farmers, and other vulnerable groups? Has the community been sufficiently involved in every energy transition process?” asked Aryanto.

He pointed out that one of the energy transition projects that Indonesia is currently running is the Just Energy Transition Partnership (JETP). The project aims to mobilize USD 200 billion to help implement decarbonization efforts and is expected to help Indonesia shift away from fossil fuel power plants while accelerating renewable energy development. However, the big question is how transparent and accountable the development is. How is the involvement of civil society significantly affected communities in the project? Does JETP also implement the principle of justice in the energy transition?

Aryanto hopes that this national civil society meeting forum can accommodate input that is felt directly by the site community so that people can feel a fair energy transition for all. Another hope is that women, children, people with disabilities, and all elements of society are increasingly involved in decisions related to a just energy transition.

The National Meeting began with a Panel Discussion entitled Encouraging an Equitable, Inclusive, and Transformative Energy Transition in Indonesia, moderated by Aris Prasetyo, Kompas Journalist. Present as speakers at the panel discussion were Adhityani Putri, JETP Indonesia Secretariat; Ahmad Ashov Birrry, Koalisi Bersihkan Indonesia; Chandra Sugarda, Senior GEDSI Expert; and Rina Prasarani, Chairperson of Division II Advocacy of the Indonesian Disabled Women’s Association.

Aris Prasetyo sparked the discussion by presenting critical questions for the speakers. How is the involvement of vulnerable groups, disabilities, older adults, and women in the energy transition?; Indonesia received a grant of around Rp 300 T for the implementation of a just energy transition through JETP, the need for further elaboration on what funds and processes will be carried out in Indonesia, as well as critical questions related to the need for a just and transformative energy transition in Indonesia considering that currently, Indonesia is still very dependent on PLTU for electricity in Indonesia.

Adhityani Putri said three significant sub-sectors related to energy transition: electricity, transportation, and energy use for industrial needs. The energy transition is an effort to change the economy in the process of releasing fossil energy dependence in the three subsectors without ignoring priority development as a developing country, including eliminating poverty, developing the central and regional economies, and improving the standard of living of the Indonesian people until a balance is achieved.

The Indonesian government signed the Just Energy Transition Partnership (JETP) with the G7 countries on November 12, 2022, on the sidelines of the G20 Summit. The joint statement contains the signing of a 20 billion USD funding partnership scheme consisting of 10 billion USD in public funding and 10 billion USD in private financing. Public funding comes from the G7 countries (United States, Japan, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy), Denmark, Norway, and the European Union. On the other hand, private funding is expected to be channeled through 7 GFANZ (Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero) banks consisting of HSBC, Citibank: Standard Chartered, Bank of America, Deutsche Bank, MUFG, and Macquarie.

This energy transition is based on the agreement of world scientists who agree to achieve zero emissions in 2050, then 2030 is considered the midterm so that all the world’s climate targets are in 2030. JETP takes the benchmark of 2030 and 2050.

There are three joint targets signed by Indonesia and the IPG:

1) Achieving PIK Emission.
The energy sector, especially electricity, produces high emissions because it still uses coal, consumption will increase, and electricity production will continue. According to ESDM calculations, in 2030, our emissions will be 375 million tons, so the agreed PIK emission target is 290 million tons of CO2 peak CO2 emissions in the electricity sector in 2030 and immediately decreased afterward in the electricity sector.

2) Net zero on 2050
3) Increase renewable energy by 34% in electricity, which is currently only 12%.

In line with this target, the JETP Indonesia Secretariat is developing a Comprehensive Investment & Policy Plan (CIPP) to launch in mid-August 2023. The CIPP is a dynamic document that articulates an approach to driving an equitable energy transition, ensuring a fair distribution of benefits, and mitigating risks until Indonesia reaches its zero emissions target. JETP’s total investment & policy plan (CIPP) was developed to ensure a consistent view of the energy transition strategy.

Ahmad Ashov Birry defines justice as transparency, accountability, and participation. Where accountability must be clear, to whom we can push for change. Participatory that is built must be meaningful and accommodates two-way dialog. Unfortunately, the PLTU development process has never used a participatory approach. Justice also includes ensuring the protection of human rights, where cases of human rights injustice do not want to be repeated when the energy transition process is carried out. Economic justice and ecological justice must be included in a transformative transition.

Several strategic steps can be taken to oversee the energy transition process in Indonesia, including accelerating the early retirement of coal, reforming PLN and energy policy, and raising the value of renewable energy. It is expanding the horizon of a just transition with a green economy, decarbonizing the industry. So it must encourage resource efficiency and social inclusiveness.

Another perspective, Chandra Sugarda, a Senior GEDSI Expert, said that the composition of Indonesian society consists of 50 percent of women, 30 percent of children, 11 percent of older adults, and 10 percent of people with disabilities, and other compositions are filled by indigenous peoples, local groups. When it comes to disability groups and indigenous peoples, most of them experience institutional barriers.

Talking about gender vulnerability, it is not only women who experience inequality; an example of a case found is that boys in coastal areas are more left behind because they have to accompany their fathers to the sea, while boys in inland areas have more access to education.

Chandra raises the issue of the gendered energy transition. In the LTS-LCCR (Long-term strategy for low-carbon development for climate resilience) document until 2050, the paper has set out the importance of intergenerational gender mainstreaming (PUG) between ages, indigenous peoples, and local communities in efforts to make an equitable energy transition. However, there is a note that this document has not touched on disability groups.

Chandra underlined the parties responsible for the equitable energy transition process, including the Government through its policies and programs that must be equitable and integrate aspects of GEDSI; The private sector, including SOEs, must be able to identify vulnerable groups affected by its various projects; CSO communities and civil society groups to guard the government and the private sector so as not to leave any group behind in the sustainable development process; Academics to develop objective energy transition studies and policy recommendations; and the media to report and echo the voices of affected communities.

There are still various obstacles to making an equitable energy transition, such as the need for national capacity to build policies that fill the gaps. Several ways can overcome these obstacles, including by making gender mainstreaming (PUG) and the GEDSI perspective a policy derived from sustainable development project plans.

GEDSI-specific approaches can also be applied, such as enhancing the leadership of women and vulnerable groups; Increasing the capacity participation of women and vulnerable groups in jobs needed in the energy transition; Developing friendly work areas for women, indigenous peoples, and vulnerable groups that are accessible to people with disabilities.

The last speaker, Rina Prasarani, explained individuals that are included in the disability category or people who have limitations:

a) Physical Disabilities (movement/mobility)
b) Intellectual disabilities (limited memory and concentration)
c) Mental and emotional disabilities
Psychosocial disabilities, i.e., people with mental disorders, bipolar, schizophrenia, and others.
Cognitive development disabilities such as people with ADHD and Autism
d) Sensory disabilities in sensory function consisting of visual (total blindness, low vision) and hearing (difficulty hearing, total deafness).

Disability groups have been hampered in their participation due to external factors. The needs of each vulnerable group are also different, and currently, there is no paradigm to empower disability not being involved in policy formulation during the energy transition.

Three things need to be considered in involving disability groups in the energy transition, namely complete and meaningful participation by listening directly to various disabilities because the concept of disability is constantly evolving; Inclusive solutions, ensuring that understanding, treatment, analysis, and policies do not collide with one another; and building sensitivity, building sensitivity to limitations with facilities that are not yet available.

An equitable, inclusive, and transformative energy transition must be directed at how energy can benefit all levels of society, not colliding with other groups so that their needs are collected and accommodated. For the efficiency of the process, there needs to be monitoring and evaluation for data collection using disaggregated data. Of course, these vulnerable groups are the ones who better understand the needs and problems faced by them. There needs to be a familiar voice to realize an equitable energy transition.

Author : Chitra Regina Apris
Reviewer : Aryanto Nugroho & Mouna Wasef