Indonesia Corruption Watch (ICW) revealed that there were differences in coal export data between ministries in recent years. This data discrepancy opens the door for corruption in the mining sector.

ICW Research Division Coordinator Firdaus Ilyas said that from 2006 to 2016, the government did not have the same coal export data. For example, during that period, the Ministry of Trade’s records stated that coal exports were 3,421.6 million tons. However, according to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Indonesia’s coal export volume for the same period was 2,902.1 million tons.

Not only between ministries but the export data recorded by the Ministry of Trade is also different from that of coal importing countries. The recipient country of Indonesian coal is only 3,147.5 million tons.

In terms of value, coal exports are also different. During 2006-2016, the recorded value of coal exports based on data from ports of departure or free on board (FOB) in Indonesia reached US $ 184.853 billion. However, when referring to data on the port of destination for the buying country (Cost Insurance and Freight / CIF), it is US $ 226.525 billion.

From this data, ICW calculated the value of transactions that were not reported properly in the 10 years to reach US $ 27.062 billion or around Rp. 365.3 trillion (using an exchange rate of Rp. 13,500). Export destination countries that indicated that transactions were not reported during that period included China, Japan, South Korea, India, Thailand, and Taiwan.

Overall, the indicated value of state losses due to deviation in coal exports from 2006 to 2016 reached Rp. 133.6 trillion. This comes from tax liabilities of Rp 95.2 trillion and royalties (DHPB) of Rp. 38.5 trillion which are not paid. “This asynchrony opens a gap for irregularities to occur,” said Firdaus in a discussion on Publish What You Pay Indonesia entitled National Coal Management Strategy: Fiscal Challenges and Energy Transition in Jakarta, Thursday (4/10).

Director of Export of Mining and Industrial Products at the Ministry of Trade, Merry Maryati, did not deny the data discrepancies. However, according to him, so far the Ministry of Trade does not have wide access to export data, especially data from three institutions, namely BPS, Bank Indonesia, and Customs. As a result, data in the Ministry of Trade is often different from other Ministries. “Now we are trying to have a Memorandum of Understanding so we can get the data,” he said.

Director of Non-Tax State Revenue (PNBP) of the Ministry of Finance Mariatul Aini said that it was building a data integration synergy involving related ministries such as the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. The goal is to monitor and supervise production data for coal exports.

This data integration can make it easier for the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, and other related Ministries to know which companies are not reporting transactions regarding coal exports.

Director of Coal Development and Business of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Sri Raharjo said the ICW findings data related to coal export irregularities would be input for the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. There are several efforts that will be made by ESDM to make coal data more transparent in the future, one of which is by using online data monitoring.

The Director of ESDM and National Mining of the National Development Planning Agency, Josaphat Rizal Primana, assessed that the findings of irregularities such as coal exports were still minimal being responded to by the relevant Ministries. “This depends on the political will of the relevant ministries. We have conveyed the findings of ICW in the middle of this year to ESDM but there has been no follow up, “he said.