We should know that Indonesia is one of the largest coal producers in the world. If sorted, Indonesia is fifth after China, the United States, India, and Australia. Indonesia’s coal resources reach 99.2 billion tons, with reserves of 13.3 billion tons spread across parts of Indonesia, such as Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Papua. It was recorded from 2012-2015 that the average coal production reached more than 400 million tons per year. Even though so many coal resources are available, it has been predicted that their existence will run out in the next 29 years or, precisely, in 2046. (Agung Budiono and Rizky Ananda W.S.R : 2017 : 5 )

The existence of coal energy resources which are so abundant, a lot of coal mining has been carried out in various areas that have the potential to have coal energy by some groups involved in the coal industry. The coal industry is a coal mining business that takes up a vast area of ​​land and cannot be separated from the various problems that exist in it during the mining process, both before and after. Then, has the abundance of coal resources made a significant contribution to the welfare of the people amid an area rich in coal resources?

The existence of coal energy has indeed contributed to the Indonesian economy at the national level. Still, it has not been able to provide optimal welfare for the Indonesian people, especially for affected communities close to the mining productivity area. The dream of prosperity is only for a handful of people. Many things happen to every coal mine that is done. These problems exist from upstream to downstream.

Upstream problems began after the transition from centralization to decentralization (Regional Autonomy) was made with the birth of Government Regulation (PP) No. 75/2001. The advent of the PP caused mining permit data to need to be in sync between the central government and regional governments. It should be noted that in 2001 the central government had mining permit data for 750 permits. However, after the enactment of decentralization, in which the authority for mining permits was entirely handed over to local governments at the city/district level, this increased mining permits, reaching 8,000 in 2008. This figure grew from 2010 to 2014, earning more than 10,900. (Agung Budiono and Rizky Ananda W.S.R : 2017 : 2-4)

The increase in the number of mining permits is indicated because the granting of land permits for mining in areas rich in coal resources is always associated with regional head elections (Pilkada). So it is suspected that mining permits granted by regional heads to business actors are often accompanied by compensation in bribes or gratuities. In this case, much lobbying was done from the RT level, the village head/lurah down to the smaller level. If the company controls these actors, it will pay them to smooth the way. This way, mining companies can more quickly carry out their mining production.

As a result of the issuance of thousands of mining permits without control by state administrators, many mining permits overlap among other commodities, as well as with conservation forest and protected forest areas. The existence of questionable companies, such as unclear addresses, questionable capital adequacy, and the status of IUP Exploration and Production Operations issued without any commitment to allocate post-mining reclamation funds. (Agung Budiono and Rizky Ananda W.S.R : 2017 : 1)

As explained by Bang Tuah as Pokja 30 in Samarinda, he explained his field study in the Kukar area (Kutai Kartanegara). The Kukar region has three sub-districts: Sanga-Sanga, Samboja, and Muara Jawa. There is a village called Sungai Nangka with 16 overlapping permits, namely the number of Amdal copies and pastes that have passed inspection. In addition, he also explained that in East Kalimantan, there are still many mining permits that do not have NPWP. There is still neglect of supervision carried out by state administrators on existing mining permits in Indonesia, including in the East Kalimantan region. As a result of weak control by the government and related actors, many mining practices do not pay attention to sound and healthy mining practices, so from dirty mining practices, there are many destructive environmental impacts on the surrounding community and many leftover pits. Abandoned mines without reclamation are done first. Whereas before, there was a mining production practice, there was a reclamation guarantee fund deposited from the company to the government. If the reclamation is not carried out after post-mining, where is the reclamation guarantee’s existence when many mining holes remain unattended? Who knows?

By: Nur’aeni