The management of energy and natural resources post-Reformation has not completely governed for the welfare of the people. Many accomplishments have been achieved after 2 decades of reformation, but still many Reformation agenda that has not been achieved, one of which is the agenda of eradicating corruption. This was discussed in “Energy and Natural Resource Management After Reformation Era” (25/5) ago.

Maryati Abdullah, National Coordinator of PWYP Indonesia highlighted the macro economy and state revenue in mining sector. Non-Tax Revenue in oil and gas sector has decreased year by year, while it dropped sharply in 2009 to 10.6% and in 2016 only 2% of the whole Non-Tax Revenue. While in mining sector, its contribution towards the total of non-tax revenue is only small fraction, but the revenue is increase gradually. For the oil and gas income tax during 2004-2016, the total number increased six times. However, since 2015 and 2016 the oil and gas income tax dropped sharply to 49 trillion and 36 trillion. The decline in income tax is affected by the drop in oil prices.

“One of the challenges faced now is the increasing of energy consumption that has doubled compare to the energy consumption in 1998. The increase of energy consumption is affected by the economic growth and population growth. Likewise, the fuel consumption that remain growing with the increasing average consumption 4% per year, the increasing is however not followed by the discovery of new oil reserve,” said Maryati.

Fabby Tumiwa, the Executive Director of Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) highlighted the electricity situation post 1998. According to him, the electrification ratio during 1998-2017 were increased from 50% to 93% in 2017. The increase of electricity ratio was supported by the power plant capacity which were increased two times, with the electricity consumption which were increasingly tripled. Fabby added, the fossil fuel still dominates around 80-85% of total power plant capacity, and coal still become the main commodity in the fulfilment of energy in the future.

Tama S Langkun, The Coordinator of Law and Justice Division at Indonesia Corruption Watch, highlighted the corruption cases throughout 2010-2017. In that period of time, there are 271 people has became suspect in natural resource corruption cases, which consist of 45 corruption in plantation, 22 corruption cases in forestry, and 23 corruption cases in mining.

Tama also presented the ICW’s finding of the potential lost from unrecorded tin export during 2004-2015 that are totalled 389.678 metric tons worth 79 trillion IDR. There is also indication of insufficient record of nickel ore export during 2007-2015 worth 57 trillion IDR.

The current challenge of corruption eradication would be the conflict of interest of regional head in the management of natural resources. Some of corruption cases in natural resource sector such as the abuse of authority in the issuance of mining permit in Southeast Sulawesi involving Southeast Sulawesi Governor Nur Alam; manipulation  of the nickel mining rights involving North Konawe Regent Aswad Sulaiman; the corruption in palm plantation in Kutai Kartanegara involving Rita Widyasari; bribery in mining permit involving one of the member of Parliament Adriansyah; and misappropriation of the authority in Borrow to Use Forestry License in Pelalawan which involved the governor of Riau Rusli Zainal.

Tama added, in the case of Nur Alam corruption, for the first time Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) use calculation of environmental loss, which caused the state loss 4.3 trillion rupiah. Unfortunately, Basuki Wasis, the expert who were submitted his witness of the calculation of environmental losses, were counter-sued by the suspect Nur Alam. This has risen a concern that it would jeopardize the agenda of anti-corruption and the struggle movement of environment.

[1] Dengan status perkara yang sudah sampai tahap penyidikan.